Internet Resources: July 2017 Edition

Selected reviews of digital reference resources from the July issue of Choice.

internet resources july 2017

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1963: The Struggle for Civil Rights, from the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

[Visited Mar’17] Documenting the civil rights struggle has been a focal point for digital archives at many state historical societies, academic libraries, and museums, while presidential libraries have been slow to embark on such initiatives. The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library has taken the lead in rectifying this with their newest digital exhibit highlighting the fight for voter registration in Mississippi, the murder of Medgar Evers, mass protests known as Project C (denoting “confrontation”), the integration of the University of Alabama, the 1963 March on Washington, the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, and more. The website offers an important educational resource for understanding the civil rights movement through the lens of the American presidency.

On the home page, a time line spanning 1939–65 serves to contextualize the pivotal year of 1963 within the long historical struggle for racial equality. Links on the chronology provide access to event pages with compelling visuals in tile layouts complete with sidebars for more in-depth navigation. The exhibit is not overladen with text yet offers visitors opportunities to read more about the event and opportunities for delving deeper to explore presidential collections at the Kennedy Library with direct links to finding aids. Archival materials can be downloaded as JPEGs for inclusion in presentations and research papers. The great appeal of presidential collections is that multiple dimensions of history are captured through the written record, photographs, audio recordings, and film. The exhibit falls short, though, in providing film clips or audio, instead offering only partial transcripts of original recordings—a missed opportunity. Overall, the exhibit highlights the fact that presidential collections have a special historical quality and reliability as source material. The Kennedy Library offers a thoughtful exhibit that showcases the scope of presidential decision making, explores the delicate balance between federal mandates and state rights, contextualizes key civil rights events into a national movement, and underscores the powerful connection between history and current events. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All readership levels. —A. I. Fritz, University of Notre Dame

60 Minutes: 1997–2014. Alexander Street, 2017. Annual academic subscription ranges from $950.00 to $3,500.00.

[Visited Apr’17] For nearly 50 years since its 1968 debut, CBS News’s venerable newsmagazine series 60 Minutes has been considered the standard for television journalism. Alexander Street now makes available an impressive archive of almost 500 hours of videos numbering nearly 3,500 productions in all and spanning 18 years, from 1997 to 2014. The collection also features selected content from the network’s popular “Sunday Morning” show. The platform’s value-added transcriptions and detailed cataloging metadata provide a reliable way to retrieve and reuse the content for various teaching and learning purposes.

The interface is a marvel of serendipity, allowing users to browse by section (Titles, Broadcast Timeline, Subjects, Reporters, People, Places Discussed, Historical Events, Organizations), or search for particular subjects or people (e.g., terrorism, health care issues, film and films, international relations, US Airways Captain Chesley Sullenberger). One can easily find specified historical events (e.g., “Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, ca. 30 C.E.,” “Space Race, 1957–1975,” “Haiti Earthquake, January 12, 2010”) or segment titles (“Two Faces of Pakistan,” “The Execution of Timothy McVeigh,” “The Marvelous Stan Lee”). Using Advanced Search options, users may limit terms (and later filter results) by more than a dozen fields, such as interviewee or reporter (many series reporters, such as Mike Wallace, Dan Rather, Katie Couric, or the noted curmudgeon Andy Rooney have become popular-culture icons in their own right). Most fields offer drop-down menus of options, displayed by frequency or alphabetical order, which can be sorted to one’s liking (in browse mode). Broadcasts displayed in time line or text view provide a useful temporal means of accessing individual segments. A substantial set of technical tools facilitate use of the collection. Users may create a shareable playlist and select precise clips to insert into course-management systems or send to mobile devices. Segment videos have concurrently running captions alongside transcripts that highlight the audio and support refined keyword searching. Exportable citations formatted by EasyBib are available in APA, Chicago, and MLA 6 or 7 (although not apparently the newest eighth edition) styles.

Librarians should be aware that CBS advertises a subscriber-based 60 Minutes Archives at geared to individual subscribers (not multiple users in institutions) that currently features approximately 2,500 stories, including the latest “60 Minutes” episodes, selected archived segments spanning 50 years, plus raw video footage that was never aired. In all, Alexander Street’s streaming-video edition of 60 Minutes: 1997–2014, complementary to its Meet the Press (CH, Dec’14, 52-1731) collection, is a remarkable, even momentous, resource giving researchers, instructors, and students an additional way of exploring history. Academic libraries supporting undergraduate or graduate programs in history, journalism, culture studies, or a range of social science fields will find this an invaluable digital resource. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All libraries. All levels. —A. Ellis, Northern Kentucky University

AllAfrica, from AllAfrica Global Media and AllAfrica Foundation.

[Visited Mar’17] This easily searchable aggregator of African journalism (available with a French or English interface) offers a wide range of full-text articles gathered from 130 African news organizations across the political spectrum and filed from field offices in Cape Town, Dakar, Lagos, Monrovia, and Nairobi. Africa News Online at, presumably an earlier version, now resolves at this URL. Sources include government publications and spokespeople, opposition parties, and individuals advocating for specific causes. The site is organized in ten sections beginning with a topical category covering nearly 80 subjects, ranging from sport, entertainment, and multimedia to governance, innovation, and sustainability. Treated in the detailed Biztech section are subjects of investment, agribusiness, or financial and business technology, among others. The broad category of Development complements this treatment with coverage of aid and assistance, environment, education, food and agriculture, health, and women’s issues. Africa on the global scene (specifically its relationship to international organizations and major regions of the planet) is presented under the Africa/World section.

In the News Sources section, separate listings are given for publishers who provide content to AllAfrica, along with links to their home pages. Under the Regular Sources tab one can find entities that frequently contribute materials—essentially a list of non-governmental organizations and politically focused groups such as the Congressional Black Caucus. The website also serves as a source itself of news stories—highlighted and listed by country within its By AllAfrica section. A Media Kit feature outlines effective marketing strategies. Overall, the site is a logical step in collocating resources that go beyond already extant online sources of regional news from different parts of Africa. However, it is not the only such resource; a recent competitor on the scene is, launched in January 2016 at and available online, via social media, and on television. Summing Up: Recommended. All readership levels. —R. B. Ridinger, Northern Illinois University

American Fiction, 1774–1920. Gale, part of Cengage Learning, 2017. Contact publisher for pricing.

[Visited Mar’17] American Fiction, 1774-1920 provides cover-to-cover searching and downloading of more than 17,800 works of American prose fiction. The earliest portion of this comprehensive assembly was derived from Huntington Library librarian Lyle H. Wright’s American fiction bibliographies, which covered the years 1774–1850, 1851–75, and 1876–1900, along with the resources described in American Fiction, 1901–1925: A Bibliography, by Geoffrey D. Smith (CH, May’98, 35-4858). Additional titles come from a variety of American libraries, but most importantly the Ohio State University’s William S. Charvat Collection of American Fiction. This newly assembled digital collection on the Gale Primary Sources platform, formerly Gale Artemis (CH, Oct’14, 52-0586), offers a preponderance of lesser-known authors and works, providing ample opportunity for new discoveries. Its extensive chronological coverage and wide variety of fictional genres give evidence of a culture in a continuous state of change.

The interface’s advanced search pinpoints words within an entire work or in specified bibliographic fields. One can create term-frequency visualizations (clusters arrayed in a wheel or tile display), which makes it possible to trace the growth or decline of concepts and usages across time. This technique, as a discovery strategy, however, tends to be of limited value as the results incorporate only the first 100 words plus the title page from a subset of top search results. Searches can be refined using an array of facets and terms added through Gale’s customary search-within-the-search feature. From the advanced search screen, users can switch to the full Gale Primary Sources interface, the depth of which depends on the host library’s other licensed components. Reproductions are excellent; pages and illustrations are crisp and clear. Selected pages and entire works can be downloaded as PDFs or saved to a folder in a user’s account.

The database complements Gales’ European Literature from 1790 to 1840: The Corvey Collection, contained in their Nineteenth Century Collections Online (CH, Oct’12, 50-0602), and ProQuest’s Early American Fiction, 1789-1875 (CH, Sup’05, 42Sup-0108), with fewer than 1,000 titles assembled by the University of Virginia. Portions of the contents have also been made freely available in early digital initiatives, such as Indiana University’s Wright American Fiction, 1851-1875 (CH, Sep’02, 40-0021). The contents of this curated collection of full-text works will be invaluable to historians, literary scholars, and undergraduates through advanced students in programs of study in the humanities or social sciences. Summing Up: Recommended. Undergraduates through researchers/faculty. —R. Stuhr, University of Pennsylvania

Archive of Americana. Readex, 2017. For academic libraries, Readex offers a one-time tiered purchase price with an annual maintenance fee.

[Visited Apr’17] Readex has been busy digitizing US historical resources ever since releasing Early American Imprints Series I: Evans, 1639–1800 (CH, Nov’04, 42-1269) and Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801–1819 (CH, Sep’11, 49-0028). These curated modules—each available for purchase separately—have grown into the Archive of Americana, now comprising more than 40 collections of monographs, periodicals, newspapers, government publications, broadsides, and other ephemera spanning four centuries. While approximately one-third of the individual collections organized into several larger thematic or format-based sets have not yet been completed, the archive now totals well over a half-million titles and pages numbering in the tens of millions, with coverage particularly strong for the 18th- and 19th-century period.

Commencing with Early American Newspapers, Series 1 (CH, Apr’06, 43-4401), Readex continues to augment its “America’s Historical Newspapers” series, for instance, which at this point numbers over 4,000 titles and features many small papers with fewer than 10 issues alongside older, regional publications and important historical titles such as Boston’s Daily Atlas, the District of Columbia’s Evening Star, or Leslie’s Illustrated. By comparison, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (CH, Jan’07, 44-2430) covers fewer than two-dozen major US (e.g., New York TimesWall Street Journal) and international newspapers, primarily from the 19th and 20th centuries. ProQuest, like Readex, also offers various subsets, with over a dozen newspapers from the late 19th and 20th centuries in their Black Newspapers (CH, Nov’08, 46-1216) or American Jewish Newspapers collections. Readex’s more extensive collections (in numbers of titles and time depth) include Ethnic American Newspapers from the Balch Collection, 1799-1971 (CH, May’13, 50-4783) and several focused on African American newspapers spanning 1827–1998 (CH, Jan’11, 48-2437) or 1835–1956 (CH, Apr’17, 54-3531), to highlight but a few.

The Readex “America’s Historical Imprints” series brings together books and printed materials such as Afro-Americana Imprints 1535–1922 (CH, Nov’15, 53-1059), African-American Periodicals, 1825–1995 (CH, Feb’13, 50-2989), or The American Slavery Collection, 1820–1922, as well as topical collections like The Civil War: Antebellum Period to Reconstruction (CH, May’09, 46-4788) that together total well over 150,000 works in a still-growing assemblage. Government publications are included too under the umbrella of Archive of Americana, with various components that can be searched separately, such as American State Papers, 1789–1838 (CH, Jan’06, 43-2572) and the U.S. Congressional Serial Set, 1817–1994 (CH, Jul’10, 47-6030). Libraries can also license these two resources as modules within other vendors’ packages, such as ProQuest Congressional (CH, Sep’13, 51-0057), although Readex’s Civil Rights in America (CH, Oct’16, 54-0486) is an example of a value-added topical collection that draws on pertinent documents contained in these sets. The Readex AllSearch platform permits searching of all databases simultaneously or selected collections alone, but limits field specification to full text, date, place of publication, title, author, and citation text. Using the single-resource interface currently provides more versatile search options, such as particular historical time frames, genre formats, or subjects that provide granular specificity and reveal other collection-unique distinctions.

Adam Matthew’s collection of collections, branded as Americana (CH, May’17, 54-4066), invites obvious comparison with the Readex archive, and seems to provide more content of a personal nature (e.g., letters, diaries, manuscripts, along with government documents, imprints, and selected newspapers), and thus perhaps presents a more highly individualized view of American history. Adam Matthew’s coverage of Native Americans and popular culture is particularly strong, and selected transcriptions make for a successful searching experience. Readex’s Archive of Americana, by contrast, provides invaluable, virtually unprecedented access to a greater largesse of historical materials. The entire archive contains materials appropriate for the most comprehensive of research collections, while smaller academic libraries will be more selective in licensing just those components that amplify relevant programs of study. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-level undergraduates through professionals/practitioners; general readers. —R. A. Aken, University of Kentucky

East India Company: Module I, Trade, Governance and Empire, 1600–1947. Adam Matthew, 2017. Contact publisher for pricing (based on FTE, purchase history, and Carnegie Classification); a typical one-time purchase ranges from $22,500.00 to $75,000.00.

[Visited Mar ‘17] This online resource makes available more than 900 volumes of India Office Records held at the British Library in London. Module I contains Indian Office Records documents from classes A (East India Company’s charters, statutes, and treaties), B (minutes of the meetings of the Courts of Directors and Proprietors, C (minutes and memoranda of the Council of India), and D (East India Company’s minutes and memoranda of the general committees and offices). Also included are the associated “Z-class” indexes. Adam Matthew plans to release two additional modules, Module II: Factory Records for South Asia and South-East Asia (2018), and Module III: Factory Records for China, Japan and the Middle East (2019).

From the founding of the East India Company in 1600, with a royal charter issued by Elizabeth I, through Indian independence in 1947, the resource covers nearly 350 years of history. Given the far-flung influence of the East India Company, this collection provides a wealth of information on a wide range of topics, such as early voyages of exploration, Britain’s Opium Wars with China, and the British Crown’s assumption of rule in India by the Government of India Act (1858). The well-designed database structure offers a number of options for accessing and working with the primary sources, including 17 document types (e.g., commissions, deeds, indentures, statutes, treaties) that can be used to search for and filter results. The sources are identified with a thumbnail image, document title, date, India Office Records (IOR) reference class, document type, and era. Documents may be browsed by 11 historical eras or the six IOR classes.

An interactive time line—a particularly helpful feature for novice users—not only provides rich historical context but also links to pertinent documents. Under the Documents tab, users can find a Government Structure Chart section presenting British and Indian office holders (Mughal emperors, prime ministers, viceroys, etc.), with brief biographies and links to related documents. The browsing applications include various filtering capabilities such as document type and date. Advanced searching by keyword, document title, document reference, and date is also available. Additional features include links to external resources, four historical essays by prominent scholars, and an interactive data visualization tool that allows users to map and graph 13 commodities across 17 global markets from 1760 to 1834. Finally, My Archive and My Lightbox permit users to save documents and images for later reference. This immensely valuable resource will increase understanding of the British Empire’s impact as well as enhance the study of world trade and economic history. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Undergraduates through professionals/practitioners; general readers. —R. P. Nash, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Gramophone. Exact Editions, 2017. Annual academic subscription begins at $375.00.

[Visited Mar’17] Subscribers to the online edition of Gramophone—the recorded-music review magazine in longest continuing existence—are now able to access not only each new monthly issue but also search and read the digitized, archived contents of issues dating back to the publication’s inception in April 1923 as The Gramophone. Every editorial page and most advertisement pages have been scanned and digitized, contents are tagged as articles, reviews, or advertisements, and the text is extracted so that the entire Archive section is searchable by keyword or by date. Issues contain reviews of classical music and jazz recordings, concerts, books, and audio and video equipment, as well as interviews with important personalities. Succinct commentaries geared toward the cultured amateur are written in such a way that scholars can also find them informative.

Although Gramophone is a British magazine, a fine 16-page supplement dealing with North American recordings and concerts called “Sounds of America” is included in each issue beginning with September 2010. Larger libraries would do well to subscribe to the online edition of Gramophone, as well as those of its bimonthly US counterparts, American Record Guide (dating back to May 1935, with a hiatus between November 1971 and October 1976; fully archived) and Fanfare (established in September 1977; its archive and index have recently launched but are still being added to). Individual readers with limited budgets would find it more affordable to subscribe to either or both American periodicals. American Record Guide (with an annual subscription rate of $48.00) reviews only classical CD recordings and videos and concerts, while Fanfare (at $60.00 per year) contains interviews and reviews of sound and video recordings and books dealing not only with classical music but also with jazz and music from the Indian subcontinent (“Bollywood and Beyond”). Exact Edition’s user-friendly interface makes it easy for institutional subscribers and their authenticated users to peruse issues or search for particular keywords in this attractive, full-color magazine, included in Music Index (EBSCO), Music Periodicals Database (ProQuest), and other sources. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Undergraduates through researchers/faculty; general readers; professionals/practitioners. —D. Ossenkop, SUNY College at Potsdam

Jacob’s Pillow Dance Interactive.

[Visited Mar’17] Jacob’s Pillow is a seminal dance center in Becket, Massachusetts, best known for its annual summer festival. The website provides a glimpse across the history of this institution through video footage recorded from the 1930s to the present. Similar to other ventures by peer cultural heritage institutions—the New York Philharmonic’s Digital Archives (CH, Aug’11, 48-6645) comes first to mind—the site simultaneously serves to support study of dance history at the Pillow while encouraging festival attendance and support. The interactive site is thus equal parts outreach and gateway to unique primary sources in dance. The video assets load quickly and include controls common to other video-streaming services. The vintage age of some videos detracts from picture quality, but recent content is of surprisingly rich definition at full screen.

Navigating is simple and searching options are obvious. Browsing is organized by artist, six genres (ballet, contemporary, cultural, hip hop, modern, tap) or chronologically by decade. Each video’s accompanying spare metadata is sufficient for comprehending the context of the work and its contributing artists. The inclusion of a Guess game as an option alongside Browse, Themes/Essays, and Playlists speaks to the charm of this resource compared to its contemporaries. The 20-some offerings under the Playlists section (e.g., Dance Icons, World Premiers) are curated by director of preservation Norton Owen. Users should understand that this feature does not equal the playlist functionality offered by Alexander Street Press’s performing-arts databases, including Dance in Video (CH, Mar’10, 47-3716), where one can create, save, and share playlists. The design of Jacob Pillow’s Dance Interactive is elegant and sleek, yet appropriately kinetic. Spending time with the resource inspires users to embrace the deep history of Jacob’s Pillow and the wide range of the festival’s programming, and they will come away aspiring to attend its performances in person. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All readership levels. —V. J. Novara, University of Maryland

The Making of Modern Law: American Civil Liberties Union Papers, 1912–1990. Gale, part of Cengage Learning, 2017. Contact publisher for pricing.

[Visited Apr’17] Gale’s launch of this collection in their “Making of Modern Law” series—joining eight others, including Legal Treatises, 1800-1926 (CH, Jul’12, 49-6044), and Trials, 1600-1926 (CH, Feb’12, 49-3053)—provides access to more than two million pages of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) papers. The ACLU has long been involved in numerous issues and cases that have changed US law and continue to affect the daily lives of millions of people. Some cases, such as the John T. Scopes trial (on the legality of teaching human evolution) or the establishment of Miranda rights (a suspect’s right to remain silent), are a now widely recognized part of the American lexicon. The database includes case files, correspondence, legislation, clippings, etc., and focuses on issues and actions related to the defense of civil rights and the expansion of civil liberties in the 20th century. Subjects range across issues of race, gender, communism, church-and-state separation, labor rights and activism, pacifism and conscientious objectors, and much more.

The site’s clean and intuitive search interface features full-text keyword searches as the default (and likely the most useful), while advanced name, date, and subject searches are also supported. The full-text search yields good results, and it is possible to limit results by content type, document type, language, or source. Other features of note include the “term clusters” and “term frequency” options, which provide excellent graphics depicting important trends in 20th-century civil liberties. Selected files appear in a window within the page. The total number of items in the file is reported, and one can page through the documents just as if exploring the contents of a file folder. Researchers can search within the files, and results appear alongside the documents with keywords highlighted on the pages; if illustrations are available, these are indicated as well. In clippings files (of which there are many), additional indexing allows researchers to quickly locate or easily disregard large portions. Full citation information appears under the document window. The quality of the original documents varies, but zooming and shrinking are simple and the full-screen option works well.

This excellent collection of primary documents provides first-rate access to unique materials important to the study of modern US history and law. The only caveat is that it includes only a portion of the ACLU collection spanning 1864–2011 (mostly 1917–95) held at Princeton University and described at Gale’s description does not fully clarify how these records fit into that larger archival context or what may have been omitted. It will be challenging for beginning students or novice online researchers to appreciate the depth or breadth of this newly organized content, but the collection will certainly aid scholarship among advanced researchers. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-level undergraduates through researchers/faculty. —E. B. Scott, Saint Michael’s College

Refugee Phrasebook, from Open Knowledge Foundation Deutschland.

[Visited Mar’17] Refugee Phrasebook is a project aimed at providing refugees and aid workers with a means to access a diverse but focused collection of terms pertinent to their situation. The multilingual online resource is described as an “open collection of useful words and phrases for refugees who just arrived.” The content is created by volunteers who donate their knowledge and expertise to translate phrases in 30-plus languages. Users have access to four phrasebooks hosted on the site: the Short Version, which contains fewer than 180 basic phrases; the Basic Conversation Version, which amplifies the short set to provide general phrases numbering over 600 terms for refugees themselves and includes roughly 150 additional entries aimed at helpers; and a separate Medical Phrasebook and a Judicial Phrasebook, each with more than 150 terms.

Users can select more than one language in which to view the selected vocabulary; however, selecting more than three limits the ability to view them on one screen. Detailed instructions are provided for downloading a phrasebook in PDF format, but doing so requires a Google Account and the current version of LibreOffice. The site could be improved by providing guidance to users under the FAQ section on which internet browsers work best with the content. At the time of this review, content was not loading correctly on Google Chrome, requiring experimentation with other browsers; the site did load properly and quickly using Internet Explorer. Published under a Creative Commons license, the Refugee Phrasebook offers individuals worldwide an innovative way to meet the growing demand for basic communication skills and provides immediate language support to people who may be facing dire circumstances. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All readership levels. —S. E. Montgomery, Rollins College

Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism, gen. ed. Stephen Ross. Routledge, 2016. Annual academic subscription based on FTE begins at $790.00 for a single user or $1,185.00 for concurrent users.

[Visited Apr’17] What is modernism? In many minds, the label generally reflects the breaking away from an earlier mode or period; those immersed in Western traditions think immediately of names and movements that occurred roughly between the late-19th and early-20th centuries in western Europe, readily associating the term with the writing of Proust, Joyce, or Woolf, the oeuvre of Marcel Duchamp, the lives of the Bloomsbury Group, or the influences of Dadaism. All of these individuals, works, places, and conceptual frames are featured in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism, first launched in May 2016 and continually updated. However, the initiative to understand modernism in its totality is a much more inclusive effort, not only focusing on the movement’s rollout in Western Europe and spread afterwards to North America, but also recognizing the accompanying shift in thought and attitude happening at different times in other cultures and societies. The work thus expands scholarship on modernism, leading outward from its Eurocentric roots to discuss how the movement has shifted and found expression elsewhere across the globe.

The interface to this online encyclopedia—not merely an ebook replicating a printed set, but an evolving digital resource—is cleanly designed, with beautiful images reflecting the many themes of its more than 1,000 entries. Searching is straightforward; one may search broadly by keyword or explore resources assembled within the subject sections (Literature, Architecture, Visual Arts, Music, Dance, Theatre, Film, and Intellectual Currents). As expected, articles link to related names, movements, or geographic locales elsewhere in the work. General Editor Ross (Univ. of Victoria, Canada, and past president of the Modernist Studies Association) has assembled nearly 1,500 scholars who are specialists in their respective fields to contribute these clearly written essays. The selected references in each point to excellent related information (although this reviewer noted that an essay on the movement in the US and Canada referenced items that deal solely with aspects in the US). Ross leads a related, innovative digital humanities project that draws on the encyclopedia’s tremendous amalgam of terms and relationships—the open-source website Linked Modernisms at, which helps users visualize the encyclopedia’s metadata as graphs, providing another means of exploring its contents.

Routledge plans regular updates to this reference tool—it is truly conceived as a work in progress. The potential is exciting, provided that the wide purview of the editor’s intended scope happens as planned. The initiative provides academic libraries with an essential resource to support relevant programs in multiple fields of study; there is currently no scholarly online encyclopedia with such an expansive focus. The format makes for an appropriate introductory tool for all academic audiences seeking to gain a foothold within modernism’s global context. Summing Up: Essential. Upper-level undergraduates through researchers/faculty. —L. J. Sherlock, Victoria University